Johnston and P. Johnston, the highest-ranking U. Army general to join the Confederacy, was a Virginian, a West Pointer, and would prove himself the most adept retreater in Confederate service.
Civil War battles often had one name in the Northwhich was usually associated with a prominent nearby physical feature, and another in the Southwhich was usually derived from the town or city closest to the battlefield. The strategic significance of the location lay in the fact that Manassas was an important railroad junction. Robert E.
This was the first major land battle of the armies in Virginia. On July 16,the untried Union army under Brig. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the equally green Confederate army, which was arrayed behind Bull Run beyond Centreville.
Though Union forces held an early advantage, an overly-complex plan and the arrival of Confederate reinforcements led to their collapse and they were driven from the from field. The defeat shocked the public in the North and quashed hopes for a swift resolution to the conflict. In the wake of the Confederate attack on Fort SumterPresident Abraham Lincoln called for 75, men to aid in putting down the rebellion. While this action saw additional states leave the Union, it also began a flow of men and material into Washington, DC.
On July 16,the new Union volunteer army under Brig. Pierre G. Beauregard, drawn up behind Bull Run creek west of Centreville.
Known as the First Battle of Bull Run or Manassasthe engagement began when about 35, Union troops marched from the federal capital in Washington, D. After fighting on the defensive for most of the day, the rebels rallied and were able to break the Union right flank, sending the Federals into a chaotic retreat towards Washington. The Confederate victory gave the South a surge of confidence and shocked many in the North, who realized the war would not be won as easily as they had hoped.
The Civil War. Adding to the strain was Lincoln's awareness that the ninety-day enlistments of the recruits who had responded to his call to arms after the attack on Fort Sumter were rapidly coming to an end. Something had to be done, and soon.
It was the first major land battle of the American Civil War. Just months after the start of the war at Fort Sumter, the Northern public clamored for a march against the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, which they expected to bring an early end to the rebellion. Yielding to political pressure, Brig. Beauregard camped near Manassas Junction.
Department of Pennsylvania :. The battle was fought on July 21, in Prince William County, Virginiajust north of the city of Manassas and about 25 miles west-southwest of Washington, D. The Union 's forces were slow in positioning themselves, allowing Confederate reinforcements time to arrive by rail.
United States president Abraham Lincoln —under pressure from the public that urged the army "On to Richmond! He failed, and Confederate troops equally untrained under Joseph E. Johnston rode the rails from the Valley to Manassas, where they united with P. The battle was marked by confusion, with Union and Confederate troops wearing similar uniforms and flying similar flags.